Series Reports on Works of the Soil Erosion Research Team Ⅲ (3)

Construction Items of Experimental Station


On July 5th, 2007, Beijing Normal University signed an agreement with Songliao River Water Resources Commission (Ministry of Water Resources), and the Water Resources Bureau of Jiusan Sub-Bureau of the General Bureau of Land Reclamation of Heilongjiang Province to establish the Jiusan Water and Soil Conservation Experimental Station which integrates production (farm), studying (Beijing Normal University) and administration (Songliao River Water Resources Commission). The three parties contribute to the development of the station, share the resources and also benefit from the development of the station. As one of the field test stations of the State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, the experimental station provides a perfect platform for each party: Beijing Normal University provides scientific and technical support for high-efficient and green agricultural production; land reclamation system with high mechanization and intensiveness provides demonstration for promotion of high technologies; and at the same time the project provides a favorable training base for graduate students.


The Water Resources Bureau of Jiusan Sub-Bureau of the General Bureau of Land Reclamation of Heilongjiang Province and the Songliao River Water Resources Commission (Ministry of Water Resources) provides the experimental station with 10 hectares of experimental land, including testing field for soil erosion, and farmland management crop experimental area, etc.


(1) Testing Field for Soil Erosion


Fig 15 Layout of Testing Field for Soil Erosion, Jiusan Experimental Station


The Testing Field for Soil Erosion (see fig 15) with 20 runoff plots (total area of 2500m2) was built in 2003. The field consists of 10 slope length plots (lengths respectively are 1m, 4m, 7m, 10m, 15m, 20m, 50m, 100m, 200m, and 300m) for research of relationship between long slope length and erosion; 3 bare land plots (two 5° and one 8°) for study of erosive rainfall standards and rainfall erosivity, and testing of soil erodibility factors of black soil; 5 cultivation lands (zero tillage, transversal slope ridging and up and down slope ridging) for measuring of key factors of soil and water conservation measures in black lands of Northeast China; 2 snow melting plots for estimation of snow density. Observation items include rainfall processes, runoff and sediment quantity of each runoff generation, coverage and production quantity of crops. Through the serial observations conducted from 2003 to 2008, the station obtains data of 293 rainfall processes, 457 annual plot records, in 2007, 5 records of runoff sediment; and in 2008, 9 records of runoff sediment.


(2) Farmland Management and Crop Experimental Area


Fig.16 Farmland Management and Crop Experimental Area, Jiusan Experimental Station


The experimental area consists of three parts (see fig 16): The first one is a plot of 32 crops with total area of 1500m2, which is mainly for crop growth experiments under different control conditions such as cultivation measures, and agricultural management, etc., research of the interaction between crop growth and environment as well as management, and provision of test parameters for establishment of crop growth models. In 2003, the station started the construction of 12 zero tillage plots which are used for study of the influence of zero tillage on crop production and physical and chemical properties of soil. Key filed observation indicators include soil temperature, humidity, vegetation coverage, and soil physical and chemical properties obtained from indoor analysis. The zero tillage plots are developed into 12 from 2 at the beginning, by adding 2 plots every two years. As of 2008, the earliest zero tillage plots have been observed for 6 years. The second part consists of 56 erosion and land productivity plots and pot experimental field with a total area of 5000m2 which were started from 2006. The study of the influence of erosion on soil properties, fertility and land productivity is conducted in these plots through plot or pot experiments under different fertility conditions. The “3414” soil fertility experiment has 42 crop plots (taking soybeans as experimental object). The research, through regression experiments on optimum quantity and allocation of fertilizer, measures the fertilizer response functions of main fertilizers used in black land, and therefore determines the maximum and optimum fertilizer quantities for soybeans planted in black land. The experiment has been lasted for the whole year of 2008. The pot experiment area contains totally 162 pots, among which, 126 were used for N, P and K experiments from the year 2006 to analyze the fertility of soil and utilization rate of fertilizer; 15 pots were used in 2008 for soil organic matter experiments and study of the influence of soil organic matter on crop growth; and 21 pots were used in 2008 for the experiment of influence of soil bulk density on crop growth. The third part is farmland management field with a total area of 80000m2, which is mainly used for relevant field experiments, including farmland soil testing and fertilizer recommendation, study of measures and technologies for water and soil conservation, field promotion of results of plot experiments, and precision agricultural technologies, etc.


(3) Small Watershed and Measuring Weir

In order to study on the soil erosion and desertification law of slope-channel-watershed system, proportion of gulley erosion and surface erosion in watershed, spatial distribution of small watershed soil erosion, and efficiency of prevention measures for water and soil conservation in watershed. etc., the research team chose two small watersheds in 2004 (respectively 3.59 km2 and 2.07 km2) to construct measuring weirs (see fig 17), and respectively observed the rainfalls and runoff sediment during spring floods and rainy seasons, and studied snowmelt runoff erosion and rainfall erosion. The observation results show that, the total number of runoffs generated in each small watershed from 2006 to 2008 is 17.


Also, in order to obtain scientific observation data for efficiency of watershed governance, the Water Resources Bureau of Jiusan Sub-Bureau of the General Bureau of Land Reclamation of Heilongjiang Province and the Songliao River Water Resources Commission (Ministry of Water Resources) make sure that the lands in the two small watersheds are utilized as to the requirements of scientific research, and promise to maintain the current station of No.2 small watershed. They also plan to, based on the reservoir dam of Group 6 of Heshan Farm, construct a measuring weir for the Hebei Valley (higher than the two watersheds), thus to extend the observation range to 35km2 circle of the whole Hebei Valley and enable the research of the erosion desertification and sediment transport relationship between valleys with different levels.


Fig. 17 Measuring Weir of Small Watershed


(4) Comprehensive Experimental Building

In order to further improve the experimental, office as well as living conditions of the Jiusan Water and Soil Conservation Experimental Station, with the funds specially used for construction of state key laboratories, the station started to construct its comprehensive experimental building in 2009. The comprehensive building has a floor area of 635m2 and construction area of 1270m2, including 270m2 labs, 341m2 offices, 80m2 conference rooms, 307m2 guest rooms, and 272m2 staircases. In addition, the building has separated car parking area (with construction area of 96m2) and kitchen and dining hall (construction area:120m2). The building was completed in October, 2009.


Fig. 18 Former Place of Work, Experimental Conditions, and Newly-built Comprehensive Experimental Building