Series Reports on Works of the Soil Erosion Research Team Ⅲ (2)

Feasibility Analysis on Construction of Experimental Station

The runoff plot method was originated in Germany in late 19th century, which has become the most fundamental and correct method for research of soil erosion and water and soil conservation science. In early 20th century, the USA established its first runoff plot in University of Missouri, and then promoted the method nationwide. As of 1950s, the USA had established 34 water and soil conservation experimental stations all across the country to conduct slope runoff observation. With the observation data obtained from these experimental stations, the USA not only leads the quantitative research of soil erosion in the world, but also creates a prediction model of soil erosion on the basis of these observation data which has become an important technical tool for dynamic monitoring of water and soil losses and configuring water and soil conservation measures, and has been widely promoted and applied worldwide. Since 1970s, the soil erosion research has focused on the problem of diffused pollution and the water and soil conservation experimental stations have paid more attention to watershed research until recent days. The mechanism model research started from late 1980s also depends on the observation data from the experimental stations. The historical development of the water and soil conservation experimental stations clearly indicates that, the experimental station based scientific data accumulation and originated scientific research findings have not only pushed forward the discipline development, but also enabled quick transformation of science and technology into productivity.


Our country currently has more than 30 water and soil conservation experimental stations, which are mainly affiliated to two types of organizations, one is river water resources commission, or provincial water resources bureau or scientific institute under the supervision of Ministry of Water Resources; the other is institute under the Chinese Academy of Sciences. These experimental stations are mainly used for plot observation, that is, observation of soil losses in the plots caused due to different natural conditions (slope length, slope gradient, soil types, etc.), land utilization, and natural rainfall under agricultural management measures. Key problem to resolve includes erosion of slope surfaces. Beside some universities specialized in the field including Beijing Forestry University and China Agricultural University, Beijing Normal University is among several other universities which have large-scale experimental stations.


Located in the Heshan Farm of Jiusan Sub-Bureau of the General Bureau of Land Reclamation of Heilongjiang Province (crossing Nenjiang County, Wudalianchi City and Nehe City), the Jiusan Water and Soil Conservation Experimental Station has successively established and constructed the Testing Field for Soil Erosion, Farmland Management Area and Crop Experimental Area, Small Watershed Measuring Weir, and the Comprehensive Experimental Building since 2002. It is a field experimental station with the highest latitude in our country.


Fig. 13 Distant View of the Jiusan Water and Soil Conservation Experimental Station


By integrating monitoring, mechanism research and influence evaluation, the experimental station features the following characteristics: (1) comprehensive dynamic method for monitoring water and soil losses which integrates multiple traditional research methodologies including slope surface plot observation, watershed weir and anthropogenic rainfalls, and modern methodologies such as gully GPS monitoring, nuclear trace element analysis, and chronology analysis, etc.; (2) research of multi-scale erosion desertification process and sediment transport process based on the observation of slope-channel-watershed runoff sediment; (3) evaluation of environmental influence of erosion based on erosion-land productivity experiments and soil-water chemical analysis, including development of erosion-land productivity model and farmland diffused pollution model; (4) research of water and soil conservation measures and precision agricultural research featured with agricultural mechanization and intensiveness on the basis of maintenance of sustainable utilization of black soil resources. The establishment of the experimental station not only meets the development trend of national soil erosion research, but also highlights the regional characteristics of the black soil regions of Northeast China, which play important roles in the economic development of our country. The experimental station focus on the following research fields (Fig. 14):


1. Soil Erosion Mechanism, Processes and Prediction Model

(1) Law of Soil Erosion of Long Gentle Slope; (2) Law of Snowmelt Erosion; (3) Soil Erodibility and Quantitative Influence of Water and Soil Conservation Measures; (4) Creation of Prediction Model of Slope-Watershed Soil Erosion


2. Dynamic Monitoring of Water and Soil Losses and Precaution of Land Deterioration

(1) Determination of Sampling Survey Method for Water and Soil Losses in the Region Based on Soil Erosion Model; (2) Soil Thickness Survey and Precaution of Land Deterioration; (3) Technical Method for Measuring Soil Erodibility and Effects of Water and Soil Conservation Measures by Anthropogenic Rainfalls; (4) Application of Nuclear Trace Technology and Chronology Methodology in Research of Spatial Distribution of Soil Erosion and Precaution of Land Deterioration.


3. Diffused Pollution Mechanism and Evaluation of Environmental Influence of Soil Erosion

(1) Pollutant Enrichment Caused by Application of Pesticide and Fertilizer; (2) Law of Transfer and Transformation of Pollutant; (3) Diffused Pollution Model


4. Soil Erosion Prevention Mechanism and Water and Soil Conservation Technologies

(1) Mechanism and Technology of Water and Soil Conservation Measures including Cultivation, Biological Measures and Engineering Measures; (2) Research of Feasibility of Cultivation Measures and Mechanical Technologies for Water and Soil Conservation; (3) Evaluation of Effects of Water and Soil Conservation Measures


5. High-Efficient Sustainable Land Utilization and Precision Agriculture

(1) Soil Erosion-Soil Productivity Influence Mechanism and Evaluation Model; (2) Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation, and High-Efficient Agricultural Production Technologies; (3) Development of 3S Technology Based Precision Agricultural Computer System and Cultivation Technology


Fig. 14 Sketch of Experimental Functions and Research Fields of the Jiusan Water and Soil Conservation Experimental Station